BREAST CANCER RESEARCH
Breast cancer is the most highly occurrent invasive cancer in women, and after lung cancer, it is the second-largest cause of cancer death in women.
Breast cancer is a disorder in which the cells of the breast get uncontrollably large. There are various types of breast cancer. The type of breast cancer is determined by which cells in the breast become cancerous.
Breast cancer can start in a variety of places in the breast. Lobules, ducts, and connective tissue are the three primary components of a breast. The glands that generate milk are known as lobules. The ducts are tubes that transport milk from the breast to the nipple. Everything is held together by connective tissue, which is made up of fibrous and fatty tissue. Breast cancer usually commences in the ducts or lobules.
Breast cancer could spread to various parts of the body via blood and lymph vessels. Breast cancer is said to have metastasized when it spreads to other regions of the body.
The initial signs of breast cancer are usually a thicker tissue area in the breast, a lump in the breast, or a lump in the armpit.
- Pitting or skin redness of the breast, comparable to the surface of an orange, a rash around or on one of the nipples discharge from a nipple, possibly including blood a sunken or inverted nipple.
- peeling, scaling, or even flaking of the skin on the breast or nipple a change in size or contour of the breast
The majority of breast lumps are benign. If a woman realizes that there is a lump in her breast/breasts, she should consult a physician.
Breast Cancer Types
Below are the most prevalent types of breast cancer:
Invasive ductal carcinoma
This is a type of cancer that spreads throughout the body. The cancer cells start in the ducts and spread outside of them to various regions of the breast tissue. Invasive cancer cells can also travel to other places of the body, which is known as metastasis.
Invasive lobular carcinoma
This is a type of cancer that spreads throughout the body. Cancer cells start in the lobules and then travel from the lobules to nearby breast tissues. These invasive cancer cells have the potential to spread throughout the body.
Paget’s disease, medullary, mucinous, and inflammatory breast cancer are some of the less prevalent types of breast cancer.
DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ)
This type of breast cancer can progress to invasive breast cancer. The cancer cells have only spread to the duct lining and have not migrated to other breast tissues.
Causes of Breast Cancer
According to specialists, breast cancer occurs when some breast cells begin to grow abnormally. These cells proliferate and expand at a higher rate than healthy cells, resulting in a lump or mass. Breast cancer cells can travel to your lymph nodes or other parts of your body (metastasize).
Breast cancer is most commonly caused by cells in the milk-producing ducts (invasive ductal carcinoma). Breast cancer can begin in the glandular tissue known as lobules, as well as other cells or tissue in the breast (invasive lobular carcinoma).
According to research, hormonal, lifestyle, and environmental variables have all been linked to an increased risk of breast cancer. However, it’s unclear why some people who have no risk factors develop cancer while others who do have risk factors never do. Breast cancer is most likely caused by a complex interaction between your genetic makeup and the environment in which you live.
- Breast cancer that is passed down generations
Doctors think that 5 to 10% of breast tumors are caused by gene abnormalities passed down through the generations.
A number of inherited mutant genes have been identified that potentially raise the risk of breast cancer. Breast cancer genes 1 (BRCA1) and 2 (BRCA2) are the most well-known, both of which considerably increases the risk of breast and ovarian cancer.
If you have got a significant family history of breast cancer or other cancers, your doctor may offer a blood test to discover particular BRCA or other gene mutations that are handed down via your family.
Request a referral to a genetic counselor from your doctor, who can look through your family’s medical history. A genetic counselor could also help you with shared decision-making by discussing the benefits, dangers, and limitations of genetic testing.
- Risk Factors
Anything that raises your chances of developing breast cancer is a breast cancer risk factor. Having one or more breast cancer risk factors, however, does not mean you will get breast cancer. Other than the fact that they are women, many women with breast cancer have no known risk factors.
A higher risk of breast cancer has been linked to the following factors:
Being a woman.
Breast cancer is far more common in women than it is in men.
As you get older, chances of getting breast cancer increase.
Exposure to radiation.
Your risk of breast cancer is higher if you had radiation treatments to your chest as a kid or young adult.
Obesity raises your chances of developing breast cancer.
Starting menstruation early.
Breast cancer is more likely if you start your period before the age of 12.
You’re more likely to acquire breast cancer if you started menopause later in life.
Taking alcoholic beverages.
Alcohol consumption increases the risk of breast cancer.